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InScape | Theme Dining


Inscape can be a central element that characterizes a space or a collaborator in the thematic approach of a dining venue. 


Geographical Imagination

The use and existence of Inscape strongly suggests the fostering of a sense of place. Inscape helps produce a pre-packaged version of reality to facilitate commercial exchange. Within this context, the notion of geographical imagination is pivotal in the creation of place. For the purposes of this thesis, geographical imagination is defined as the ability to be transported to distant and exotic destinations without traveling vast distances. It relies on cultural (textual, visual and social) assumptions about foreign lands, and at the same time it restricts the experience of foreignness to these representations. Polynesian-themed restaurants were instrumental in the development of the Inscape interior type. The growth and development of post-war consumer and visual culture were fundamental to the rise of Polynesian and theme restaurants more broadly. The United States' role in the world shaped how theme restaurants trafficked in the production of fantastic locales and experiences. Theme restaurants use a variety of elements to mold patrons' experiences, circulation, and use of restaurant spaces. Moreover, the post-war consumer culture and the materiality of the restaurants ultimately shaped the psychological effects of the spaces on patrons.

Selling an "idea of place," an experience, and the idea that the "journey is half the fun", are common threads that weave through theme restaurants. These businesses create a sense of place and an experience. Diners become the protagonists of their own exciting adventure by allowing them to feel as if they were, in fact, spending time in an exotic and distant locale. Inscape is an accomplice in this plot, because it recreates outdoor environments and engages customers in the experience and in the performance of this illusion. 

From an historical lens, theme restaurants are concurrent to, and as a result of, the economic expansion and increased prosperity of the post-war period. Art historian Karal Ann Marling argues in her work about the visual culture of the 1950s, that post-war prosperity, competition with the Communists, and increased buying power, made the 1950s a period of mass production, social reinvention, and optimism. "Seeing is absolutely central to the meaning of the 1950s." She posits that the 1950s television and advertising industries reduced the distance between social manners and personal intimacy. Television brought the public culture into the private home in a visual way.1 For the purposes of this research, her arguments support the idea that dining out, while less common than it is today and therefore more special and elaborate, would have fit into this mold of seeing, being seen, blurring the lines between private and public, and reducing social distances. 

In addition to the cultural production and origins of modern consumer culture, is America's role in the world and the visual shorthand used in several theme restaurants of the 1950s era to signify the Caribbean, Asia, and Africa. A cursory examination of newspaper political cartoons relating to the United States' involvement in Latin America, Asia, and Africa during the twentieth century reveals caricaturing of the "natives" along racial and patriarchal lines. For example, newspapers often depicted natives in traditional garb, as people of color, and as youthful and disobedient. In these depictions the United States was often portrayed as a tall, thin, older, and white Uncle Sam, forced to deal with the misbehaving child in a forceful manner.2 These representations created, then, an easy way to characterize the "other" and use this visual shorthand to tap into the consumer's geographic imagination and help "transport" them to an exotic locale. 

Inscape, within the context of theme restaurants, introduces patrons to an artificial world based on fantasy. It introduces customers to places, people, and cultures out of their historical and geographic context and presents these locations as consumer goods to be purchased. As theorist Guy Debord discusses in his seminal work the Society of the Spectacle, theme restaurants introduce a version of history that erases certain aspects and presents instead a neatly packaged ideal, where the artificial becomes more important than the real thing, and representation becomes the authentic experience.3

Literary, Philosophical, and Artistic Interpretations 

The term Inscape was originally coined by the British poet Gerard Manley Hopkins in the mid to late 19th century, the term refers to the uniqueness that each being or entity has when it was created by the universe.4 Inscape, also refers to the artistic representation of an artist's psyche; specifically this term was used by the Chilean surrealist painter, Roberto Matta, who painted the interior landscape of his mind in many of his masterpieces.

By bridging the two previous definitions of Inscape with the present themed dining study, it is possible to understand how many of the landscapes in themed dining are surrealistic, requiring diners' imaginations so that they can be transported to foreign lands.

Elements and Effects

The uses of natural elements working in concert with each other create the effect of outside space indoors. Inscape does not occur in isolation; other design elements intervene in this practice. Light, furniture, props, materiality, and color reinforce and complement the ambiance of an outdoor environment while being inside of a restaurant or a bar. Inscape blurs the line between indoor and outdoor spaces. The type and quantity of plants and natural and artificial elements used can range from trees, plants, and vines to rocks, driftwood, water, and even special effects. 

Inscape makes a contribution to the spatial branding concept Saturate.6 In the Saturate condition, brand identity permeates every aspect of the space. This typically occurs with the use of material, color, lighting, and signage. Inscape can happen in varying degrees of distribution, therefore defining the space in which this condition occurs. In some cases, Inscape is found to be pervasive in space and therefore becoming the central theme of a dining venue. The restaurant Clifton's shows an abundance of large palm trees and artificial flowers engulfing the space, giving it an appearance of a lush and tropical paradise. A bamboo hut reinforces the scheme of Polynesia, by appealing to stereotypical ideas of housing in the islands.  In contrast, Nobu offers a subtle ambiance, because it utilizes foliage in a controlled manner. In this case, birch trees, made of several logs and branches, are interspersed throughout the Japanese restaurant and recreated an abstraction of dining in a forest. 

Restaurants exploit nature to contribute and facilitate the production of a theme and to structure spaces. Inscape may section, highlight, and emphasize certain spatial elements inside of a dining establishment. There are a variety of ways to manipulate space and our perception of it; these manipulations are mediated by the shape, scale, and proportion of spatial elements. Hence, the texture, color, and scale of features within a space can alter and modify spatial qualities such as light and sound. Likewise, the direction and scale of graphic patterns, and objects can distort the shape and proportions of the building ‘s planes.7 In the case of Inscape, natural elements (and in some cases, special effects, such as sound) can provide acoustical and visual privacy to the patrons by absorbing and masking noise and concealing sightlines and visual permeability. 

As a material strategy, Inscape has the ability to highlight some spaces and conceal others, thus establishing spatial hierarchies by emphasizing and de-emphasizing different areas in the interior space. A large area can contain smaller spaces within, and Inscape can provide visual and spatial consistency between two spaces. The contrast of this space-within-a-space can indicate a functional differences or a symbolic importance of the contained space in the dining environment.8 

The ways in which Inscape is deployed can contribute to the ways people navigate or move through the space, and therefore effect the organizational configuration of a floor plan. Nature displays and features can dictate how the different spaces are linked to one another, how patrons utilize the space, and how these elements create paths. The path-space relationships might cause the user to avoid certain areas, thus maintaining the integrity of each space and limiting traffic through particular spaces. Another possible configuration is pass-through-spaces where the path may pass through a space axially, obliquely, or along the edge. In cutting through the space, the path creates patterns and movement within it, also creating spaces for pausing and resting. Finally, natural elements can delineate a path in a straight manner, thus guiding the patrons to a focal point of arrival. In this case, the location establishes the shape of the path, and patrons use the path primarily to enter or mark important spaces.9

The deployment of vast or small amounts of greenery and special effects to recreate the outdoors of a restaurant interior can provide a feeling of expansion or, the opposite, constriction. Both strategies lure customers into the dining establishment, and each delivers a fantasy-driven dining experience.

Psychological Implications

Perhaps one of the many reasons why Inscape has been in existence since the inception of theme restaurants is because of the positive attraction it elicits from the patrons. The benefits of nature have long been studied in human beings, as have the restorative effects it has on cognitive improvement, health, and stress buffering. Several environmentalists (e.g., Berry, 1997; Orr, 1994; Leopold, 1949) and nature writers (e.g., Louv, 2005; Muir, 1894; Thoreau, 1854) have long maintained that humans derive physical and psychological benefits from spending in time the natural world. 

The theory of restorative environments establishes the reduction of mental fatigue as the most important factor in restoration. Most of our daily activities require our direct attention, but there is a distinction between voluntary and involuntary attention. The voluntary attention requires mental effort. In contrast, involuntary attention or "fascination" appears when interest and curiosity is sparkled by objects, sights, or activities capture and retain our attention. Restoration, then, is possible under these circumstances because our voluntary attention is not required. The restorative environments theory also supports the notion that restorative settings should promote the feeling of being away, such as a temporal change in location and daily activities. Although in some cases non-natural experiences may contribute to the restoration of mental fatigue, fascination and restoration are most commonly found in natural settings. "Nature proves to be the most reliable source of mentally restorative experiences."10 

Chronological Sequence

The Decade of 1940 

The use of plants and natural decor in theme restaurants has origins in the Polynesian theme restaurants of the decade of 1950. In the thesis, "The Polynesian Theme in American Restaurants 1954-1970: A Case Study of Cultural and Design Appropriations," Jeanne Mercer surveyed twenty-five Polynesian restaurants. In this seminal study, plants, rocks, and shells are some of the most common artifacts found in the interior of Polynesian theme restaurants. She argues that "live vegetation include tropical plants, palms and trees that vary in size, proportion and density. They are mostly used for decor and are often clustered in garden settings in the interior and grow in decorative items, such as shells, on walls." In addition to the extensive use of plants, water features recreate green "Polynesian" environments. These common interior features include streams, waterfalls, fountains, pools, and bridges. In the restaurant Kahiki, there are "seven interior waterfalls, a rain forest complete with rain showers, and ‘thunderstorms' every half an hour, as well as pools at the entrance foyer and lobby. Simulated thunderstorms are created by flashes of light and sound effects concurrent with the activation of the ‘rain' sprinkler system in the rainforest area."11 The employment of all these elements comprehensively creates an outdoor environment indoors, and it demonstrates that restaurateurs are consciously manipulating patrons' senses to create an experience of a distant land in their dining establishments.

The use of these elements in Polynesian-inspired restaurants suggests that nature and natural objects are fundamental in recreating the verdant spaces of the South Pacific. The iconic Los Angeles' Clifton's make use of greenery, rocks, water, and other props to achieve the desired effect. Restaurant tables are interspersed among abundant greenery and bamboo structures. Exaggerated artificial flowers punctuate the spaces among a sea of crowded tables, while a large bamboo wall sectioned the dining area from a luscious garden. Full-size palm trees, plants of various kinds, and flowers make up the dining area.

Two palm-tree huts are also part of the scene. The smaller one, placed among the tables, is made of several layers of palm-tree fibers that cascade down and form a type of "skirt," enveloping the diners seating below it. The larger structure is more complex. It rises above the ground on several bamboo pilotes, reminiscent of dwellings found in the South Pacific islands that stand high above the ground to prevent flood waters from entering the home. The materials used in this structure are primarily bamboo, raffia, jute, and wood. The roof of the structure is also made of palm-tree fibers. The structure seems to cut across the width of the restaurant, and judging by its placement, and prominence, it also serves as a performance space.  

The same Clifton's location depicts patrons, several World War II-era military men in uniform among them, seated at three tables. It also portrays, three lei-wearing waitresses serving the diners. The backdrop of this postcard scene is a rock wall that occupies most of the space in the image. The irregular rock formation expands from the floor to the ceiling. Water cascades down the wall along several points and spotlights emphasize the features of the rock. At the bottom of the rock formation, there is a small water pond with a few small palm trees in it. Although the rock wall dominates most of the scene, it is possible to see a composition of driftwood, similar to those found on a beach, concealing most of the back wall on the right side of the image. 

At Clifton's, the use of a variety of greenery, bamboo, rocks, and water so emphatically saturates the spaces that it could have been an outdoor location. Inscape becomes the pervasive element in the thematic approach for the restaurant, permeating every aspect of the dining space, and effectively transporting the patrons to a Polynesian island. 

A contemporary of Clifton's is the Brookdale Lodge, a wilderness-themed restaurant located in California, and developed and owned Clifton's owner, Clifford Clinton.  The setting for this restaurant is equally impressive and more elaborate. Large columns disguised as Giant Redwood trees form part of the realistic landscape of this space. A stream of running water cuts across the restaurant, connecting its sections by a modest footbridge. Attention to detail is the key in this interior environment; ferns, deciduous plants, rocks, wood, water, natural and artificial lighting are all employed to work in concert to simulate a beautiful and unique wilderness inside of the restaurant. 

Clearly, the central focus of the space is the stream and the wilderness that surround the dining tables. In this instance, the tables are placed at varying heights to mimic the "topography of the land." A second photograph provides a glimpse into the building that enclosed the restaurant. It is a massive timber structure that connects all elements of the interior of the restaurant, and it was reminiscent of a lodge or cabin. Abundant natural light penetrates the lodge through large window spans and skylights. The brightness in the space combines with the extensive foliage to create multiple shadow-light compositions, just as those found in the outdoors.

The Decade of 1970 

By the decade of 1970 a shift in Inscape occurs. At this point, the approach is not as aggressive as the one found in the Polynesian restaurants or Brookdale's Lodge. The deployment of material strategy in theme dining changes. Natural elements are used with more restraint in theme dining establishments.  

The 1971 restaurant the Green Tulip located inside of the Plaza Hotel in New York City, opens its doors to extend the "freshness of live greenery from adjoining Central Park into the spacious interior." The designer, Sally Dryden, uses a "garden fresh color-scheme," plants, and trees with scattered gazebos. The gazebos with wine serving facilities are known as "sangria trees."12 The designer deliberately sought to extend the outdoor space of nearby Central Park within the walls of the restaurant by bringing the park indoors. Her strategy employs a lively decor giving the illusion of greenery-surrounded alfresco dining. This strategic use of greenery and the close proximity of Central Park, visible from a window-bordered dining promenade, make this a successful extension of Inscape. While the interior of the restaurant remains formal in its architecture and organization, the vivid colors, and the use of plants and trees throughout make the space approachable and cheerful.  Inscape effectively brings the nearby park inside the Green Tulip; the strategy is one of careful selection and placement of materials and finishes. The shift toward restraint means that the earlier over-the-top spectacles are not found here; there is no use of theatrical lighting or special effects in the Green Tulip, but strategic use of the physical and psychological connection between the location of the restaurant and the nearby park. 

The tactic employed by designer Mimi London at Mimi's, a 1976 restaurant-discotheque in Atlanta, Georgia, uses natural, raw materials throughout the space, "to counteract what one sees in most restaurants today". London "wanted to create a completely non-plastic, non-machine-made environment." Most materials are brought from the Pacific-Northwest. For example, the bar is made from a 750-pound cedar stump; the bar rails are pine logs from Montana; the lounge seating is carved from a single cedar burl. London also acquires quartz crystals from Hot Springs, and giant clamshells from Australia. Even seashells are made into ashtrays.13

The designer of Mimi's sought to recreate a beach setting using ample quantities of driftwood and sparing use of desert plants. The hues utilized are those of the wood, light browns and yellows, and blue splashes mostly from the upholstery of the seating. Inscape defines the theme found in this restaurant-discotheque. The design execution did not focus on recreating a realistic outdoor environment to the very last detail. Instead at Mimi's, Inscape supports an abstracted beach theme. The space is not saturated by greenery, natural elements, or special effects. There is a sense of moderation because Mimi's does not attempt to create a realistic fantasy world. Instead it succeeded at creating a suggested one.

The Decade of 1980 

Inscape continues it usefulness in the decade of 1980, although less published evidence is found. During this time period, theme restaurants continue to be popular, although the realism of thematic interpretations cannnot be compared to those found in the decades of 1940 and 1950.  During the 1970 era, Inscape and theme restaurants opt for a nuanced expression of the theme, characterized by suggested ideas and abstract interpretations of a theme instead of a literal delivery. This is primarily seen in the decline of special effects and theatrical lighting; more emphasis is placed on natural materials, foliage, and color.    

The singular example found for 1980, shows Inscape working together with custom built spaces and lighting to recreate an outdoor environment. The "park" at Commons at Copley Place recreates outdoor promenades, with multiple gazebos and porches. The 11,000 square-foot restaurant features pathways and lanes paved with stone, "bordered by grass-like carpeting." Trees are the primary foliage aiding in the simulation of the park. Planters contain full-size trees that adorn and delineate circulation paths that meander throughout the facility. In conjunction with trees, hundreds of tiny light fixtures are installed on the ceiling grid, "simulating a nighttime firmament."14 The porches, gazebos, and furniture are all painted white, and warm yellow lights bring distinction to each of the spaces, creating a soft glow in contrast with the dark floor and evening "sky." The winning trifecta of strategies for this restaurant (Inscape, woodwork structures, theatrical lighting) results in a space with a classic and romantic atmosphere that in fact resembles an outdoor boulevard.

The Decade of 1990 

Evidence suggests that in the decade of 1990, both theme restaurants and Inscape have a resurgence in popularity. Many more theme restaurants open their doors in this decade, possibly due to the recovery of the economy after the financial crises of 1982 and 1987. The return of theme dining saw stronger exponents, although almost none are as elaborate and eccentric as the Polynesian theme restaurant. 

The 1992 Chinese restaurant, August Moon blends rural Chinese and contemporary western styles. A center courtyard welcomes customers with a cloud-painted ceiling, a skylight, and a tree surrounded by plants. In addition, "architectural elements simulating a Far Eastern village courtyard [are] ringed with rustic house facades [and] an undulating partition structure winding, like the Great Wall of China." Thus, August Moon reiterates the return of certain elements of Polynesian theme restaurant, but with a discreet touch. 

The circular skylight above a tree allows for natural light to enter the space; at night it produces a moonlit effect. The use of Inscape in this space employs greenery as an anchor and focal point in the space. Since the courtyard was the pivotal center of the restaurant, it provides an opportunity for patrons to pause and admire the interior structure while waiting for one's table. At the same time, the foliage within the courtyard helps direct traffic and serves as a landmark16 for the different sections and functions in the restaurant. 

In 1994, the Japanese restaurant Nobu employs Inscape as a strategy to use nature in an abstracted way, opting for a suggestive notion of the outdoors. "We wanted it to look like no Japanese restaurant you've ever seen before, "said the designer David Rockwell. According to Rockwell, the geographical references are those specific to the Japanese countryside. Rockwell designed abstracted tree sculptures that rise from the floor

to the ceiling. The trees have integrated lighting and use birch trunks, rusted steel plates, and scorched ash branches to intensify the appearance of the wood grain.17  

Spatially, the tree sculptures usher diners into the room and frame the banquette seating. The trees are aligned in Marching Order,18 and punctuate the space in ceremonial manner by dictating a rhythm. Birch branches create a screen at the back of the restaurant, adding visual continuity to the forest theme.  The extensive use of wood in this restaurant results in a warm interior. There are no other major interventions in the space, which in turn translates into a minimalist effect. Although the use of the trees is a direct reference to a wooded area, the approach is geometrical and calculated, a counterpoint from the organic, and free-flowing natural surroundings found in previous exponents of Inscape.  

The Rainforest Cafe is a contemporary example of Inscape in a Saturated condition, as it once was in the Polynesian theme restaurants. No other evidence was found after 1950 that uses Inscape to the extent found in this restaurant. The Rainforest Cafe opened its doors in 1995; its original location was in Disney World's Village Marketplace. Today, the Rainforest Cafe is found across thirteen states of the United States. Like many contemporary theme restaurants, the theme experience extends beyond the doors of the restaurant, by being paired with an adjoining retail store that sells memorabilia. 

The creation of the rainforest experience encompasses the combination of live and animated animals, simulated volcanoes, show lighting, and sound systems to create the experience of dining inside a tropical rainforest. Artificial trees, live and artificial plants, and vines complement the scene hanging from the ceiling, on the walls, and "growing" on the floor. Rock formations and boulders delineate the walls and create passages connecting sections of the restaurant. Live birds fly freely, and water droplets from waterfalls and steam "clouds" rise in the air. Other special effects include "rainstorms," an erupting volcano, and "forest floral aroma" released by the ventilation system.19 No natural light enters the space; neon lights and signs appear in the interior, giving a sensation of stillness. Since the general illumination is dimmed, it infuses the space with a dark and somber sensation, which in turn may have been the opposite effect intended for the original concept of the restaurant. Therefore, despite the heavy emphasis on recreating the rainforest. the lack of natural light thwarts the idea of a bright and sun-filled tropical forest. 

The next example is Fantasea Reef, a 1997 buffet restaurant in Harrah's Atlantic City where the customers are completely immersed in a reef environment. Daroff's Design create a $7 million over-the-top thematic experience. In this restaurant, "guests were not mere voyeurs watching tropical fish in giant aquarium tanks. They are submerged in the reef environment." This suggests that the theme experience is a totally sensory one. To create the sea illusion, special effects make it seem as if the water is moving. Fiber optic anemones change colors and look as if the tide will sway them. The wall, made of "cementitious material sprayed over a metal mesh, is supported by structural steel to further enhance the under-sea illusion."20 This wall opens up and becomes part of a deep blue "water-wall" that flows seamlessly to join the overhead plane of the restaurant, which in turn is the most wondrous element of all. The ceiling at Fantasea Reef is the center of attention, an overarching, out-sized feature that makes this restaurant successful in creating a fantasy of being under the sea. 

Greenwich Village Eateries in the New York City themed hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, wraps up the decade of 1990 and provides the evidence found for the existence of Inscape to this point. This realistic New York City streetscape serves as a dining space for a variety of restaurants located in the interior of the hotel. A series of artificial trees are lined across the "streets," and strategically provide "shade" to the diners who eat under them. Although there are not many trees, the Inscape effect is achieved with the juxtaposition of several design and architectural elements. For example, Matteo Vercelloni states that "there is a false ceiling made of dark blue metal panels, creating a sort of fake sky equipped with a sophisticated lighting system that changes the intensity according to the time of day, from the morning through sundown, and then the night hours."21 


The use of Inscape has seen multiple fluctuations over time. The decade after World War II saw the birth of theme restaurants as a dominating trend among these establishments in the United States, and Inscape was possibly the "original" theme dining interior archetype to be used at that time. Polynesian restaurants employ Inscape as the primary strategy to deliver a theme to the customers. The decade of 1970 represents a peak period in the use of Inscape, but it appears in a restrained form and quite never as flamboyant as seen in the latter part of the decades of 1940 and the decade of 1950. Primarily due to the economic downturn of the decade of 1980, there was an overall decline of theme restaurants in the early part of the decade, and few designs were published in primary and secondary sources.  In the 1990 era, Inscape returns and resuscitates the glamour and extravagance found in the Polynesian venues. There was no evidence found of Inscape for the first decade of 2000, possibly because franchise restaurants are not often published. Then too, restaurant owners and customers alike may seek out fine dining experiences that are less literal and more contemporary. If Inscape continues to be used in theme dining spaces, it may be executed abstractly, incurring less and less in expensive recreations of distant lands.22

end notes

  1. 1) Karal Ann Marling, As Seen on TV: The Visual Culture of Everyday Life in the 1950s (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996), 5, 285-86.  
  2. 2) Matthew Frye Jacobson, Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876-1917 (New York: Hill and Wang, 2000), 148.
  3. 3) Guy Debord, Society of the Spectacle (London, United Kingdom: Rebel Press, n.d.), 88.
  4. 4) Anthony Domestico, "Inscape, Instress & Distress," Commonweal 136.5 (2009): 26. 
  5. 5) David Ebony, "Roberto Matta, 1911-2002," Art In America 91, no. 1 (Jan. 2003): 134.
  6. 6) The Intype Saturate is a brand concept that occupies the most elevated condition of a strategic continuum ranging from the least intervention (Understate) to the most. Making use of one or multiple branding strategies simultaneously, the saturated condition borders on intrusive; the brand identity is overly repetitive, distributed throughout the entirety of the space, and is applied at almost all scales to the vast majority of elements. Juliana Richer Daily, "Spatial Graphic Design: Archetypical Design Practices and Theory Studies on  Constructing a Narrative of Place" (M.A. Thesis, Cornell University, 2012), 99; The Interior Archetypes Research and Teaching Project, Cornell University, (accessed May 10, 2012).
  7. 7) Francis D.K. Ching, Architecture: Form, Space & Order, 2nd Ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996), 88.
  8. 8) Ching, Architecture: Form, Space & Order, 214.
  9. 9) Ching, Architecture: Form, Space & Order, 278.
  10. 10) R. Kaplan and S. Kaplan, The Experience of Nature: A psychological Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), quoted in Terry Hartig, Restorative Effects of Natural Environment Experiences, Environment and Behavior, 23:1 (Jan. 1991): 5-6; Nancy Wells, "At Home with Nature: Effects of 'Greenness' on Children's Cognitive Functioning," Environment and Behavior, 32:6 (Nov. 2000): 782.  
  11. 11) Jeanne Alaine Mercer, "The Polynesian Theme in American Restaurants 1954-1970: A Case Study of Cultural and Design Appropriations" (M.A. Thesis, Cornell University, 1998), 44-45, 48.
  12. 12) Green Tulip Restaurant [1971] Sally Dryden, designer; New York City in Anonymous, "The Pleasures of the Plaza: Two New Restaurants," Interior Design 42, no. 12 (Dec.1971): 66-69; PhotoCrd: Anonymous.
  13. 13) Mimi's Restaurant-Discotheque [1976] Frank E. Nicholson, architect; Atlanta, Georgia in Anonymous, "MIMI'S: Where Everything is Real," Interior Design 47, no. 4 (Apr. 1976): 130; PhotoCrd: Rusell McMasters.
  14. 14) Commons at Copley Place [1984] Graham/Meus, architects; Boston, Mass. in Anonymous, "The Commons at Copley Place," Interior Design  55, no. 11 (Nov. 1984): 274-77; PhotoCrd: Frank Ritter.
  15. 15) August Moon [1992] Roger Borland, project designer; Long Beach, California in Monica Geran, "August Moon," Interior Design 63, no.9 (Jun.1992): 140-142; PhotoCrd: Chris Eden.
  16. 16) According to Kevin Lynch in his book Image of the City: "Landmarks are a type of point-reference, but in this case the observer does not enter within them, they are external. Their use involves the singling out of one element from a host of possibilities." Kevin Lynch, Image of the City (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1960), 48.
  17. 17) Nobu [1994] David Rockwell, architect; New York, NY, in Mayer Rus, "Rockwell Group," Interior Design 65, no. 12 (Dec.1994): 56-59; PhotoCrd: Paul Warchol.
  18. 18) The Marching Order Intype is a sequence of repeating forms organized consecutively, one after another, that establish a measured spatial order. Leah Scolere, "Theory Studies: Contemporary Retail Design" (M.A. Thesis, Cornell University, 2004), 58-62; The Interior Archetypes Research and Teaching Project, Cornell University, (accessed May 10, 2012).
  19. 19) Michael Kaplan, Theme Restaurants (New York: PBC International Inc., 1997), 122-25.
  20. 20) Fantasea Reef [1997] Daroff Design; Atlantic City, New Jersey in Anonymous, "Under the Sea," Interior Design 68, no.8 (Jun. 1997): 168; PhotoCrd: Elliott Kaufman.
  21. 21) Matteo Vercelloni, New Restaurants in USA & East Asia (Milan, Italy: Edizioni L'Archivolto, 1998), 194-99. 
  22. 22) Evidence for the archetypical use and the chronological sequence of Inscape in theme restaurant design was developed from the following sources: 1940 Postcard, Clifton's "Pacific Seas" [c1947] Anonymous Designer; Los Angeles, CA; Curteich-Chicago; PhotoCrd: Anonymous; Private Collection: Jan Jennings; Postcard, Clifton's "Pacific Seas" [1947] Anonymous Designer; Los Angeles, California;   Anonymous Postcard Manufacturer; PhotoCrd: Anonymous; Private Collection: Jan Jennings; Postcard, Brookdale Lodge [1940-era] Anonymous Designer; Brookdale, California; Anonymous postcard manufacturer; PhotoCrd: Anonymous; Private Collection: Jan Jennings /1970 Green Tulip Restaurant [1971] Sally Dryden, designer; New York City in Anonymous, "The Pleasures of the Plaza: Two New Restaurants," Interior Design  42, no.12 (Dec. 1971): 67; PhotoCrd: Anonymous;  Green Tulip Restaurant [1971] Sally Dryden, designer; New York City in Anonymous, "The Pleasures of the Plaza: Two New Restaurants," Interior Design  42, no.12 (Dec.1971): 68; PhotoCrd: Anonymous; Mimi's Restaurant-Discotheque [1976] Frank E. Nicholson, architect; Atlanta, Georgia in Anonymous, "MIMI'S: Where Everything is Real," Interior Design 47, no. 4 (Apr. 1976): 130; PhotoCrd: Rusell McMasters; Mimi's Restaurant-Discotheque [1976] Frank E. Nicholson, architect; Atlanta, Georgia in Anonymous, "MIMI'S: Where Everything is Real," Interior Design 47, no. 4 (Apr. 1976): 131; PhotoCrd: Rusell McMasters; Mimi's Restaurant-Discotheque [1976] Frank E. Nicholson, architect; Atlanta, Georgia in Anonymous, "MIMI'S: Where Everything is Real," Interior Design 47, no. 4 (Apr. 1976): 132; PhotoCrd: Rusell McMasters; Commons at Copley Place [1984] Graham/Meus, architects; Boston, MA in Anonymous, "The Commons at Copley Place," Interior Design 55, no. 11 (Nov. 1984): 274; PhotoCrd: Frank Ritter; Commons at Copley Place [1984] Graham/Meus, architects; Boston, MA in Anonymous, "The Commons at Copley Place," Interior Design 55, no. 11 (Nov. 1984): 275; PhotoCrd: Frank Ritter; Commons at Copley Place [1984] Graham/Meus, architects; Boston, MA in Anonymous, "The Commons at Copley Place," Interior Design 55, no. 11 (Nov. 1984): 277; PhotoCrd: Frank Ritter /1980 August Moon [1984] Roger Borland, project designer; Long Beach, CA in Monica Geran, "August Moon," Interior Design 63, no.9 (Jun.1992): 140;  PhotoCrd: Chris Eden; August Moon [1984] Roger Borland, project designer; Long Beach, CA, in Monica Geran, "August Moon," Interior Design  63, no.9 (Jun.1992): 142; PhotoCrd:  Chris Eden /1990 Nobu [1993] David Rockwell, architect; New York City in Mayer Rus, "Rockwell Group," Interior Design  65, no. 12 (Dec.1994): 56; PhotoCrd: Paul Warchol; Michael Kaplan, Theme Restaurants (New York: PBC International Inc.,1997), 123; PhotoCrd: Dana Wheelock; Michael Kaplan, Theme Restaurants (New York: PBC  International Inc.,1997), 124; PhotoCrd: Dana Wheelock; Fantasea Reef [1997] Daroff Design; Atlantic City, New Jersey in Anonymous, "Under the Sea," Interior Design 68, no.8 (Jun.1997): 168; PhotoCrd: Elliott Kaufman; Matteo Vercelloni, New Restaurants in USA & East Asia (Milan, Italy: Edizioni L'Archivolto, 1998), 194; PhotoCrd: Paul Warchol.

bibliographic citations

1) Roses-Sierra, Jimena. "Theory Studies:  Archetypical Theme Dining, Practices in Contemporary Interior Design." M.A. Thesis, Cornell University, 2012, 124-57.