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Saturate | Theme Dining


Saturate is a strategic concept for the design of thematic interiors whose purpose is to produce an immersive experience of place through the narrative of material culture artifacts. 


Saturate was identified and named as an archetypical brand strategy in the study of Spatial Graphic Design. "The saturated condition offers the most highly immersive experience of an interior's narrative of place. This concept is sometimes articulated through the use of one design strategy, sometimes by several working together simultaneously. Whether one or several, the distinguishing factor in the saturated condition is the level or degree to which these strategies are implemented. Strategies used in the saturated condition are applied to almost every plane within space, encapsulating the viewer. The constant level visual overload found in the saturated interior actually makes for a less dynamic experience than one might find in an activated interior. Every element in the space is featured, keeping the level of immersion at an invariable high rather than peppering an otherwise neutral space with momentary pops of brand vocabulary. Saturated interiors are often found in retail or hospitality settings, where a highly emotive visual and spatial experience enhances the function of the space, engaging consumers in a relationships with the products they are about to buy and transporting hotel and nightclub goers on an escapist vacation from their everyday reality."1 

Historian Beverly Gordon also used the term Saturate to describe an historical condition of American women's cultural and domestic environments in which aesthetic intensity, and an interconnectedness and intimacy with things, were primary characteristics. In The Saturated World: Aesthetic Meaning, Intimate Objects, Women's Lives, 1890-1940, Gordon describes the stimulation of multiple senses in which sound, smell, touch and taste are as least as important as sight. "Related to this is a quality of embodiment, where consciousness is grounded in the body, rather than the mind, and where abstract ideas may be given corporeal, animated form. A quality of childlike openness or wonder is also part of it, as is an attitude of playfulness, expressiveness, and creativity."2

In the 1890 to 1940 period in which Gordon focuses The Saturated World, American culture is characterized by a high degree of aesthetic saturation. "The wealth of newly available consumer goods had stimulated a kind of sensual excitement that filtered through to all people on all levels of society. The novelist Theodore Dreiser expressed this quality in his 1902 diary about the impact of the display windows of the new department stores." The turn of the 20th century period is also characterized by a series of overlapping aesthetic movements, such as the Decorative Arts, Arts and Crafts, Art Nouveau, all of which required consumer products. Gordon states that from 1890 to 1940 "aesthetic awareness permeated the culture as a whole."3

Case Study | Polynesian Restaurant4

The Polynesian restaurant is one of the first, and perhaps most successful, of the theme restaurants in the middle 20th-century.5 The restaurants draw on cultural stereotypes of place and ethnicity made visible and tangible in the restaurant's interior through artifacts, sound, décor and menu terminology.6

Polynesian theme restaurants epitomize Saturate through showmanship at a big scale. The Aloha Luau in Los Angeles seats 2,000 people. Philadelphia's Pub-Tiki has an 8,000 square foot dining area with 4,000 square feet of kitchen space. The dining room sits 275, the cocktail lounge seventy-five. Clifton's "Pacific Seas" Cafeteria in Los Angeles served 1600 daily. It took half a million dollars to renovate the old Chicago Room in the Palmer House hotel to create The Traders, a restaurant comprising six rooms seating almost 400.7 

Theming and entertaining co-join as opposite sides of the same coin. In the design trade press, Polynesian restaurants are most often described as atmospheric, exotic, and flamboyant. From its opening in 1949, Honolulu Harry's Waikiki on Wilson Avenue in Chicago, provides "entertainment direct from Hawaii." By 1959, its owner escalates the restaurant to an "authentic Hawaiian theatre restaurant." The Country Club Hotel in Chicago advertises its Bamboo Room as having "sophisticated music" that "complemented the exotic tropical décor."8 In this, Polynesian restaurants mimic the theme nightclubs of the 1920s, such the Copacabana and El Morocco in New York City. It is difficult to look at a historic photograph of a full-blown Polynesian theme American restaurant and not see that the entertainment value was high. Showmanship and a desire for spectacle are clearly part of the appeal, but other things also figure in the scheme.

Much of the success of Polynesian restaurants rests in the recreation of outdoor landscapes that are responsible for bringing the magic of the Polynesia to life in the restaurants. Inscape is prevalent and incredibly intricate, with a high level of detail and realism. The most successful Polynesian restaurants make use of water features, live plants, rocks, and even special effects to recreate lush, paradisiac environments. The use of Inscape strongly suggests the fostering of a sense of place by anchoring the theme restaurant in a particular time and place.

The saturated experience at the Aloha Luau in Los Angeles begins at curbside: "At the gate, the lavish, authentic South Seas setting is marked by a 25-foot handcarved palm tiki and 20-foot permanent gas-lighted tiki torches. The real hand-carved tikis came from Hawaii and as far off as New Guinea. The grounds are surrounded by permanent tikis . . . A 60-ft. bar is made of bamboo, with rattan furniture. The South Sea mood is furthered by outrigger canoes, New Zealand bird houses, a Samoan long house built in a jungle of red banana, avocado, fig, loquat and kumquat trees, a thatched-roof dance floor, a ceremonial temple and the Volcano Bar . . .  A fillip to the Aloha Luau operations is the pomp and ceremony of the Imu, a 7-ft. lava-rock pit used for roasting pigs in traditional South Seas style."9

At The Islander "guests arriving in their cars are placed in rickshaws imported from Hong Kong and boys in Chinese costumes wheel them to a winding ramp. This leads to a suspension bridge spanning a coral pool fed by eight falls that splash multi-colored waters over lava rock brought from the black sand beaches of Hawaii. A lush tropical planting of banana trees, coconut palms, giant philodendron, great tree ferns and numerous other exotic growths surround the lagoon, side walls of which are covered with brilliant abalone shells."10 Inside, coconut palm or thatched roof enclosures and several waterfalls delineate separate dining rooms.

Historically the thematic construct for Polynesian restaurants is intended as a total immersion in another cultural context, so much so that its effect is to disassociate people from their familiar surroundings. When The Traders opens in the Palmer House, the press reports that guests are transported into another world . . . "of coming into a strange and hitherto unknown civilization." The "exotic" Waikiki Room at the Park-Nicollet Hotel in Minneapolis reports that Polynesian cuisine and beverages are imported directly from Hawaii to give customers a "thrilling new experience in dining pleasure." Polynesian restaurants provide an escape from routine. "Women in particular like to 'get away from it all' by dining in a romantic, exotic room with a 'faraway look in its eyes.'" One trade source states that "the ways in which mats and thatch are used beneath the ceiling stimulated the shutting out of [Los Angeles] heat and glare." American Restaurant Magazine touts one "foreign specialty" restaurant as an "Exotic Foreign Atmosphere Made in the U.S.A." The Wan Q in Los Angeles creates an "evening in another land," one that is distinctly non-American." Writer Edward Mayland notes that Traders is "a composite of all the best things in life to be found from the Golden Gate to Singapore." "Nothing is ordinary or usual at The Traders."11 

One consequence of the disjunction from reality means that Polynesian restaurants are adaptable for any American city. Consequently, they were built across the country in seemingly unlikely places such as Philadelphia's Rittenhouse Square and on the plains of Wichita Falls, Texas. The Hawaiian Cottage Restaurant advertises its location as only "Five Miles from Camden, New Jersey." In 1949, Honolulu Harry's Waikiki in Chicago provides "dancing under Hawaiian skies." California and the upper-Midwestern states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota tally the largest numbers. In a 1965 interview, famed Beverly Hills restaurant designer, Stephan Crane speculated that the Polynesian restaurant boom begun in the 1950s had produced from 100 to 200 restaurants.12

Trade publications, such as Interior Design, overstate authenticity as a major component for setting the scene for foreign food and mood. In Cooking for Profit, the restaurants of Victor Bergeron (better known as Trader Vic) in San Francisco, Oakland, Beverly Hills, Seattle, and Denver, are described as a combination of "Oriental splendor and . . . of Pacific Island primitive designs and Oriental cultural patterns. "When [Bergeron] takes on a job there is nothing pseudo about the results. He goes to the source for original materials and works only with authentic articles."13 

In 1957, when Harry Langerman purchased a typical family restaurant in Narberth, in the heart of the Bucks County, Pennsylvania celebrity belt, he imagined a "pleasure dome" of "lush lagoons, swaying palm trees, long cool drinks served on the wind-swept lanai." Langerman collects bamboo from Hawaii, decorative tiles from Samoa, a war canoe made to order in the Solomons, Tiki gods from Hawaii and hand-carved wooden sculptures, made by the descendents of the original H.M.S. Bounty mutineers still living on Pitcairn. Bernard C. Tohl, owner of the Islander in Los Angeles, spent six months touring the Fijis, Marquesas, Tahiti, Malaya, Burma, the Philippines, Japan, and Hong Kong, "picking up a bit of this and that wherever he stopped."14 

There is a genealogy of sorts regarding appropriation. Trader Vic, and other artifact-seeking restaurant owners, attain actual materials and artifacts from a variety of Polynesian cultures. Research suggests that artifacts collected as genuine, from the Hawaiian Islands, Easter Island, or New Guinea, for example, are made available by cultural groups who select them for tourist consumption. That is, native people adopt certain objects and materials from their culture for public dissemination. 

These artifacts are genuine in the sense that they are attained from their native culture, but the extent of their usefulness or meaning to these cultures is not well understood. Back in the restaurant, materials and goods are combined into a cultural collage that represents a unified design in which the assemblage of elements becomes more important than the individual parts. The overall effect depends on mixing and blending to create a composition with total removal of the objects' hierarchical status, original context, or meaning. Objects become ethnographic by virtue of being defined, segmented, detached, and carried away. And it is the accumulation of parts that become recognized as representative of a Polynesian restaurant in the United States. The material concerns of everyday life intersect with the agencies of display as objects and made exotic. The emphasis on making is important, for display "not only shows and speaks, it also does."15 

Restaurants also appropriate the landscapes of Polynesia, with less interest in authenticity. Outdoor and indoor landscape effects and plant motifs appear in the vast majority of Polynesian restaurants. Jeanne Mercer's case study of twenty-five Polynesian restaurants reveals that live vegetation includes tropical plants, palm trees, and bonsai treatments, which are most often clustered in garden settings. Water features, such as streams, waterfalls, fountains and pools, are included as exterior elements in six restaurant sites. The Tradewinds has a waterfall and a pool at its entrance. Four restaurants use bridges located near entries. The most common features of Polynesian theme restaurants include huts, streams, waterfalls, fountains, pools, and bridges. 

The interior of the Hawaiian Village in Myrtle Beach, Florida simulates a jungle with huts and private dining rooms. "Every means has been exercised to gain the appearance of a native village, from carpet suggesting tropical flora, and including native huts with thatched roofs. A lava stone waterfall feeds a stream, with four convex bridges winding throughout the room and boasting an island with live palm trees kept alive by heat lamps recessed in the ceiling."16 An axonometric drawing of the Kahiki in Columbus, Ohio looks like an enclosed garden with its continuous wall, a gate, and huts distributed like planting beds within circulation paths. It has 40-foot artificial palm trees, seven interior waterfalls (three in a rain forest), streams and exterior and interior pools. 

Designer Stephen Crane declares that "Much of our décor-some of it authentic South Pacific tapas, for example-could find a place in any museum. It all adds up to an illusion of the Islands that is purposely overwhelming and to a square foot cost which . . . is at least double or triple the set-up cost of any other type of restaurant." When interior designer Fred Brush designs the South Pacific Ports in 1970, "an aura of authenticity" remains his primary motive, but fire codes prohibit many real materials in favor of simulated ones. Nevertheless, Brush configures tapa cloths for walls and fish net for the ceiling, but the grass for hut roofs is pre-dried and fire-proofed.17

The effect of landscape also includes atmospheric, climatic effects delivered via elaborate stereophonic systems. The Wan-Q incorporates thunder, in addition to "the rushing sound of rain pelting the roof, as if from a passing rain squall." Screeching birds, waterfalls, lush gardens, bamboo shelters, and tropical foliage greet patrons at the Hawaii Kai in New York City. Gene Kamp's Island Home, Chicago, is "unique in providing a relaxing Polynesian atmosphere, where you can listen to the sound of a waterfall and Hawaiian music, gaze at tropical birds and fish, and leisurely enjoy the finest in cocktails." The Zamboanga Supper Club in Los Angeles is the home of the tailless monkey with floor shows nightly. "Foliage, waterfalls and hand-sculptured Tiki gods add to the mystery and excitement of dining at the Kon-Tiki . . . The magic of the South Sea Islands is everywhere: running streams, gardenia-strewn pools, splashing waterfalls and extraordinary carvings and exotic plants." The owner of The Luau established in 1956 in Miami, Florida, promotes dining experience as an "atmosphere of rare delight, a beautifully created bit of Paradise under the Palms." He and others, however, make sure that authentic atmospheric dining occurs in air conditioning. When Clifton's South Seas Cafeteria opens in 1931, its extraordinary tropical interior includes neon-trimmed palm trees that "shaded" diners as waterfalls cascaded down faux-rock walls.18 

The compositional and aesthetic effects of the material culture artifacts and landscape forms employed in Polynesian restaurants include the mixing together of contrasting patterns and objects that deemphasize individual artifacts in favor of a total composition. Little to no control is present in the composition of artifact displays on walls. The compositional effect is to appear natural or uncontrolled, but it is carefully planned and ordered to create an artifice suggesting cultural and environmental authenticity. Because the Polynesian cultural collage encourages a unified effect, artifacts are inappropriately displayed. 

Saturate becomes the preferred treatment in Polynesian restaurants, a concept that continues uninterrupted from approximately 1954 to 1960. In 1963, design director Harry McCague, conceptualizes the new Don the Beachcomber in Las Vegas as a departure from the ordinary south sea island restaurants. Preliminary design meetings focus on finding a more contemporary and sophisticated approach. Teak furniture replaces bamboo; deep-woven lilac patterned carpet substitutes for grass mats. Rather than blowfish, contemporary murals adorn the walls. Seven abstracted huts made of cast fiberglass resemble gazebos more than huts. McCague also introduces new materials and updated colors-lilac and pink Naugahyde upholstery.19 In this phase, the owners and designers of The Tradewinds, Bali Hai and Polynesia Restaurant rely on a well-established theme and work less hard to sell the theme as culturally authentic. As designs become abstract, rather than representational, restaurants reduce the number of materials and artifacts and depend on fragments to evoke the scene.

Once landscape becomes an accepted part of the theme, it is replicated in some form in restaurants representing either mixture or fragment compositions. Although McQugue reinterprets the familiar patterns and materials into a more contemporary design for Don the Beachcomber, he, nevertheless, retains a waterfall that cascades into a lagoon. In 1965, Interior Design magazine features the Hawaiian Village restaurant in Myrtle Beach, Florida as a fragment of the theme. The restaurant's palm trees provide a tropical touch, but fail to feature other native plants. Instead, a sea of colorful, tropical flowers pattern the carpet. When restaurants choose Fragment over the more vigorous Mixture, they retain the palm tree as the feature that best represents the theme.20 

Creating landscapes for dining results in several dialectic conditions including what is real and/or simulated and what is authentic and/or inauthentic. In the 18th century Picturesque, Mixture is a mode of composition that stands next to nature, but does not imagine that it is natural. By choosing to represent nature, to make an artifact that employs natural elements or the appearance of natural forces, it does not convey nature directly.  Polynesian theme restaurants "straightaway engages in representation," and are "unreliably artificial." Deception lies at the heart of Polynesian theme restaurants. Restaurant designers learn to deal carefully with the artificial. "If nature means species of plants in their 'natural' habitat, then clearly exotic specimens [like palm trees] brought back from a colonial empire . . . disregarded natural and domestic virtues." A Polynesian restaurant uses culture and nature to make its own compositions. Origin is not the point. Things that grow could be combined with things that are arranged.21 

"The eye enjoys departures from the regularity that the mind uses to keep track of things. The mind attends to objects for their abstracted, representative value, rather than for their immediate sensory stimulation." The irregular form, color, and outline of, for example, palm trees and Polynesian artifacts, draw upon a restaurant patron's sensory attention. The Polynesian restaurant "fiddled with nature, mixing it with extraneous matters"; its practice tend to remove functioning parts of the human landscape from their natural place to set them aside for aesthetic contemplation even as it intensifies natural appearance.22

In the 20th century, Saturate runs afoul of modernism. In 1952 when architect Mitchell J. Alster compiles a "10-Point Check List for Good Restaurant Design" for the American Restaurant Magazine, he lists decorative design and atmosphere and clean-cut simplicity. Although Alster suggests that simplicity did not preclude decorative design, he cautions that there is "a limit to the value of universal fanciness. The day of elaborate frills and carvings is largely past." Minor Bishop admits that successful restaurant interiors sometimes makes a mockery of accepted principles of good design."23 

Saturate cannot be dismissed as a whim of untrained owner-designers or unsophisticated clientele. In fact, the twenty-five Polynesian restaurants that comprise Mercer's study are all professionally designed. Architects Ralph Sounik and Ned Eller design the Kon Tiki; architect Lloyd Lovegreen designs Trader Vic's. Architect Kenneth Sanders and Hugh W. Dear, a professional interior designer, create the Hawaiian Village. A New York City interior designer designs South Pacific Ports. The publication of Polynesian theme restaurants in various trade magazines suggests that they are in some sort of mainstream, thrown against the overwhelming tide of the International Style. The record shows that trade magazines chose to justify Mixture rather than dismiss it. One critic writes of the Wan Q: "While as much variety with other materials might well result in clutter, the use of these extremely light materials avoids this effect successfully. The other reason is the fact that the basic materials used are so different from what we are accustomed to and are so strange and interesting." From another article, one learns that the "Pub-Tiki interior may look confusing and crowded empty, but contrary to the impression here, it is not. The Polynesian décor and color is rich and authentic."24

As a preponderance of web sites attest, the Polynesian restaurant has really never gone away entirely. Mai-Kai's web site invites customers to "escape to one of the most unique dining and entertainment places in all of South Florida. Since 1956, it has captivated people with its warmth and magical aura. The Mai-Kai authentically recreates a Polynesian Village, complete with Tiki torches, a thatch roof, and a wooden plank bridge entrance."25 Trader Vic's has many locations in the United States, Europe, Asia and the Middle East. In addition to appropriations of cultural artifacts from Polynesia, restaurants create their own artifacts that become collector's items. In addition to paper goods, such as postcards, napkins, menus and posters, E-bay auctions matchbooks, mugs, t-shirts and the occasional neon sign from historic restaurants. Trader Vic's historic artifacts include a Hula Girl Scorpion Bowl, Fogcutter Tiki Mugs, Skull Mugs, swizzle sticks, salt and pepper shakers and ashtrays. Trader Vic's website has an online store ( selling key fobs, party kits, glassware, ceramics, and clothing.

Chronological Sequence

The Decade of 1930

The decade of 1930 embraces many extravagant theme restaurants, bars, and clubs, including from 1928 to 1943, Haus Vaterland26, a five story nightclub in Berlin. Haus Vaterland is capable of serving six thousand diners in twelve themed restaurants, including a Wild West bar with waiters in immense cowboy hats, and the Rhineland Wine Terrace; where each hour guests experience a brief indoor thunderstorm with lightning, thunder, and a sprinkling of rain. Within Haus Vaterland, The Turkishche Kaffee consists of hookah pipes and fez-wearing servers, a Spanish bodega and a Viennese "Grinzi Weinstuben". 27 The German Alpine is a favorite theme in Europe and the United States. Atlantis, another 1930-era Berlin bar, features an alpine marketplace with twinkling stars on the ceiling.28 In each of these cases, interior wall and ceiling planes, as well as furnishings and furniture, are manipulated to add to the themed setting. 

The Decade of 1940

Clifton's Cafeteria is established in 1931 by Clifford E. Clinton who had a vision for a business that would bring to its guests every possible service in an attractive environment and at the lowest price. Mr. Clinton creates a fantastic restaurant where everyone can enjoy the wonders of a Polynesian island. Among the features are waterfalls, geysers, and tropical foliage everywhere.  In the interior, neon palm trees, rock formations, and multiple grass huts fill the space where diners eat and socialize in an environment that saturates the senses. To immerse the customers into this Polynesian world, Clifton's uses a variety of methods to delight the clients. Free Hawaiian leis are presented to a few lucky guests upon arrival by a master of ceremonies. Eventually a lei and flower shop is opened to clients to purchase a souvenir or leis to take home. Clifton's was also known for their live entertainment; singers and music performers perform on the Aloha Entertainment Platform overlooking the main dining room. As the evidence suggests, Clifton's envelops their customers in a atmosphere that effectively take them out of their everyday lives and transport them to a distant paradise, where food service, entertainment, and decor cater to their Polynesian fantasy.29

The Decade of 1950

In 1957, the American Restaurant Magazine ran a series of articles about "beckoning customers" with good design. Chief among their tips for success is the notion that the building itself should be a "piece of packaged merchandise-a sales container." In 1956, the Editor at Cooking for Profit wrote a two-part series titled "Dining Out is Entertainment." The article, which advises ways in which restaurants can compete with other forms of recreation, recommends carrying out a theme to make restaurants distinctive and eye-catching."30

The production of many Polynesian and theme restaurants corresponds with the World War II and post-World War II period, roughly 1940 through the 1950s. In the 1940s, the United States recovers from the Great Depression and engages in World War II. In the post-war period, the United States witnesses economic growth, an expansion of the middle class, and an improved prosperity for many people. The existence of these restaurants reflects the social position of the consumers, people who have expendable income to dine at fine establishments. The restaurants are also a reflection of an expanding economy. 

During this era in the United States there is also a highly mobile population, because of increased government expenditures on infrastructure such as roads, telephone, and water systems, as well as increased urban development, spending on education, and an expanding manufacturing sector. This, of course, is a promising development for roadside diners, movie theaters, and all forms of entertainment. 

By examining theme restaurants through this cultural prism of economic prosperity and the rise of consumer culture in which everyday items become symbols of status and self-worth, helps make menus much more than reflections of visual culture. They are also reflections of social class. In this period manufacturers and advertisers create a close association between one's possessions and what they "say" about us as individuals. Paradoxically, this association occurs only possible because mass production makes sophisticated consumer culture a reality. Increased prosperity put more income in peoples' pockets, and mass production makes housing, consumer items, and eating at restaurants more affordable. As a result of the prosperous times, dining out becomes a symbol of one's consumption power and makes it possible to "escape" to the exotic restaurant down the street.

Restaurants and restaurant menus also portray historical and cultural trends as well as the embedded social practices of the day. For example, some of the Trader Vic's menus reveal the clearly gendered and racially charged portrayals of "the other." In one example, the menu displays scantily clad, sexualized women, and portrays these women as indigenous to the advertised locale (Trader Vic's, c1950).31 Therefore, the key to reading the exotic women and the remote destination is in the frame of otherness.

Victor Bergeron, a pioneer in the Polynesian theme restaurant concept, opens the doors of the first Trader Vic's in 1937 in Oakland, California. His restaurants are well known for decades for their Hawaiian-style "pupu" platters, specialties from Chinese-style wood-fired ovens, and exotic drinks. The interior design of Trader Vic's restaurants is characterized by an extensive use of artifacts and cultural appropriations from places such as Java, Bora Bora, Easter Island, and Hawaii. Most of the imagery and evidence found about Trader Vic's makes apparent the extensive collections of artifacts that are displayed throughout the different locations of this restaurant. The varied cultural appropriations of Polynesia, Saturate the interiors of Trader Vic's, using materials such as raffia, bamboo, jute, grasses, and foliage, along with the different objects and artifacts. Trader Vic's attempts to recreate in American soil, a land many dream only to visit.32

The Decade of 1960

In 1966, writing for Interiors magazine, New York architect Minor L. Bishop states that the most exciting adventures in dining are in restaurants where a "conscious, carefully planned consistency of all its elements" create a very specific environment. All the effects and furnishings, once established, sustain the theme or mood. The most effective type of atmosphere is an evocation of a setting from another time or place. Such an atmosphere relies heavily on authenticity of design-whether actual or apparent-and also on the sentimental associations of the patrons. Success depends on the clientele's "willing suspension of disbelief." That is, in effect, stage setting. The professional decorator is advised to plan a restaurant "the way a woman plans a season's wardrobe, with a central theme and color scheme."33 In the end, making a building an eye-catching package fit well with the goal of specific theme environments.

In effect, themed dining venues, especially Polynesian restaurants, continue to be favored by business developers and customers. Tiki lounges and restaurants are prolific, making use of extensive displays of artifacts and decor to create idyllic scenes and landscapes. The popularity of Polynesian restaurants extends across the Atlantic, where restaurants such as The Beachcomber gain lots of popularity. The strategy is the same, overabundance of decorations, carvings, plants, artifacts, and food and service to match the Polynesian theme. In the case of The Beachcomber the emphasis is on the beach, and not as much on the tropical jungle seen in places such as Clifton's or Trader Vic's. A large number of buoys, fishing nets, and merchant boats memorabilia are part or The Beachcomber's decor. The extensive use of organic materials, such as bamboo, rock, a variety of woods, and grass fibers unite all these elements. Lights are usually dimmed to heighten the sense of mystery in the interior space.

Although Polynesian restaurants remain fashionable in the 1960s, other theme dining establishments start to appear with different themes. The case of the Circus Circus Casino is an important example, because here the emphasis is on color and furniture, and not as much on decorations, artifacts, and special effects. Circus Circus Casino distinguishes itself from the other casinos in Las Vegas for being the only casino without a hotel and focusing only on gambling and entertainment. "Outside, the casino is shaped like a huge tent. Inside, the atmosphere of the 'big top' is carried throughout the dining rooms, cocktail lounges, gambling and entertainment areas." This hyper-themed space is the work of Bert Franklin, who uses striking vivid colors and Art Nouveau motifs to support the circus atmosphere.  Inside the "big tent," the atmosphere of the "big top" is carried throughout the dining rooms, cocktail lounges, gambling, and entertainment areas. Carnival games, sideshows, and other acts ring the top two floors. On the lower level and open to the roof is the casino pit, clearly visible from the other floors. Sixty-feet above, breath-taking feats are performed by trapeze and high-wire artists ranging from teenage Flying Cavarettas to performing chimps."  The Wiener Wagon deserves special attention; it was one of the most popular and colorful spots in the casino. Specialized in serving hot dogs, "the Wiener Wagon decor was inspired by turn-of-the-century circus wagons as depicted in the large circular windows of Tiffany style glass recreated in plastic."35 The interior of Circus Circus lives up to its name, with over-the-top designs, and a playful atmosphere achieved by the extensive use of vibrant Red Rooms,36 complemented with whimsical furniture and sinuous shapes everywhere. The Circus Circus is indeed a Saturated space, a flamboyant interior, full of entertainment possibilities.

The Decade of 1970

The chain of Steak & Brew restaurants references a "sort of English pub you might come across on the waterfront."37 Borrowing freely from Victoriana, the designer John Maurer utilizes barrels along with wooden crates and a ship's wheel in a wall display that enhance and reinforce the seaport theme of the restaurant. The rest of the restaurant is filled with a multiplicity of objects that allude to the nautical and merchant theme. The dining experience is to transport one to an historical era. The furniture and extensive displays of artifacts enhance this Saturated scene. 

Early in the decade of 1970, South Pacific Ports restaurant offers a place with a "genuine ambiance," that wants to "bring the glamour of the South Seas to life." The designer Fred Bush uses "tapa cloths to adorn the walls, and fishnet cover the ceiling in a graceful tent-like effect, real grass on the roofs of the huts, and nautical oriental lanterns shed romantic lighting."38 This Polynesian restaurant makes extensive use of textiles that are incorporated into the furniture as upholstery for the booths and chairs and also used for tablecloths. Tapestries with Polynesian motives and symbols cover many of the walls, adding cohesion to the theme. Plenty of grass huts fill the space to serve as canopies for the diners who ate below them. These create distinct zones that allow guests to dine in a more intimate and special environment. Although there are not as many artifacts as those found in earlier Polynesian restaurants, the design emphasizes materiality. The effort uses natural materials to convey the chosen theme. The use of bamboo, raffia, jute, and other grasses is extensive throughout the venue. Even the furniture is made from rattan, a strong grass similar to bamboo. Overall, the execution of South Pacific Ports is compelling and full of details, making it a magnet for customers who liked a fantasy event.

In 1971,the Trattoria of Chef Boy-ar-dee primarily used color to create a psychedelic restaurant with lots of traditional Italian flare. The designer, John Maurer, sought "to counteract association of the restaurant's name with canned goods, a spaghetti counter exposing to full view the chef at work is the focal point in the 250-seat restaurant. Located in a high-traffic area and catering to the family trade, the room is cheerful and bright with hand-painted patterns taken from old-Sicilian donkey carts."39 Colors from the Italian flag along with motifs borrowed from old-Sicilian donkey carts dominate the restaurant interior. Chairs are painted in green and red with white upholstery fabric. The same color palette wraps around the spaghetti counter, which stands in front of a large red tiled wall. Italian charcuterie hang above the spaghetti counter, transforming the space into a whimsical Italian eatery. The ceiling is painted bright yellow and a series of patterns from the donkey carts adorn the top portions of the walls in bright greens, reds, and yellows. A cartwheel is transformed into a chandelier to become a large focal point for the main dining area. Painted in bright red with traditional patterns in yellow, white and blue, it adds another layer of high energy to the space. Although the Trattoria is a good example of Saturate with colorful and bold patterns it also suggests traditional family dining and old Italian flare.  

The famous national chain, T.G.I. Fridays, is a pioneer in setting the tone of spatial Saturation with an emphasis on Americana memorabilia and strong branding schemes. In 1965, the first restaurant opened in New York City at the corner of First Avenue and 63rd Street.  Later in 1970 and 1972 the chain expands to Dallas, Texas and Memphis, Tennessee, respectively. The interior design of the restaurants has not changed much since these three prototypes were rolled out. Possessing a distinctive relaxed decor with red-striped canopies, brass railings, Tiffany-inspired lamps and extensive use of memorabilia as decor, T.G.I. Fridays distinguishes itself from competitors from the start. The interiors of the restaurants are characterized with seemingly hundreds of antiques and memorabilia hung on the walls and from the ceilings. Red-striped tablecloths are also a branding technique. One example is the adaptive-use project in which part of the exterior of the Exeter Street Theater in Boston, Massachusetts was remodeled into a T.G.I. Fridays restaurant. The outcome honors the historic building and also accentuates some of the most important brand and design features of the chain. The focal point of the main dining room is a large stained glass skylight that mimics the stained glass shades of the hanging lamps.40 The wooden interior and the pressed metal ceilings add grandeur to the space and are compelling in selling the idea of a classic, but informal dining experience. 

The Decade of 1980

The British Columbia pavilion for the 1986 Expo housed 86th Street Restaurant and Club. This land transportation theme restaurant displays a vast array of cars in different shapes and sizes, all which fill the interior space. The restaurant and club "provides family and live entertainment by day and is transformed into a dining/discotheque environment for the evening hours."41 86th Street replicates a Inscape of streets with buildings, streets, and sidewalks. Most tables are in the shape of a car and some of the posts in the tables imitate tire suspension systems. The interior ambiance is colorful, with dimmed lights and neon accents emphasizing the nightclub scene. It is important to note that this streetscape does not aim to be realistic in its execution; the cars and buildings are cartoonish in appearance. Regardless, the 86th Street Restaurant and Club is a Saturated space. 

In 1987, the bar and nightclub Olimpo opened its doors with a large display of overstated color. This Saturate case is the work of Pino Piantanida, designer and architect. He creates "a dream-like atmosphere: one in which the gods and goddesses appear amid the evanescent clouds of a sky that is sometimes blue, sometimes flame-colored-an effect he has achieved through lighting and mirrors." The bar/club makes extensive use of Billboard42 throughout the 3,800 square foot space. A case in point, "in the first room the head of Laocoon floats in clouds above the dancers; on another wall Diana fixes a victim with her arrow,"43 and above the bar Bacchus hovers. The interior planes are painted a light blue and white color palette, which gives the entire interior the illusion of being in the clouds and effectively surrounded by deities.

The Decade of 1990

Planet Hollywood is perhaps the most widely known American theme restaurant in the late 20th and early 21st century eras. "Dedicated to the veneration of models, musicians and movie stars," Planet Hollywood rose "with a fervor that rivals the construction of temples in ancient Greece. Celebrities are our gods." Architect David Rockwell's designs are multi-tiered, containing several dining areas all connected by a large atrium. A spatial void contains extensive collections of movie memorabilia, ranging from autographs and pictures to real size props utilized in movies such as cars, animatronics, and sculptures. 44  

"The architect's experience with lighting design and his encyclopedic knowledge of theater allowed him to master the evolving genre of 'Entertainment Architecture,' which differs from mere architecture in its emphasis on commodity and delight over firmness." Upon first impression, all of the franchises look the same. As Rockwell puts it, the basic plan of each amounts to "a swirling collage of space in which variously treated places overlap." All contain a trademark "diorama room", where a "montage of movie stars and memorabilia, Technicolor lighting, loud music and ever-changing videos overshadows the food and the cacophonous spectacle of other diners and a harried wait staff."45 The all-encompassing experience inside Planet Hollywood's typical dining room seldom offers views to the outside world. The lack of windows allows for the architect's complete control of the internal environment, where lighting and sound effects replicate the hypnotic effects of the movies, thus inducing boredom with antique pastimes like dinner conversation.

David Rockwell and his team of designers also created Samba, a carnival restaurant with an intoxicating explosion of color and textures. It makes reference to "a fruity rum-filled cocktail served by a shirtless waiter poolside." The Samba restaurant is located inside Mirage Casino Resort in Las Vegas. The Carnival in Rio de Janeiro inspired the design of the restaurant, and the 4,200-square foot space is said to conjure up the music, dance, sights, and sounds of Brazil.46 

Every detail speaks the theme of a carnival atmosphere. "From its entry portal of banana-shaped Dressed Columns clad in cracked yellow tile, the interior fans out like a seashell, with a freestanding bar, open grill, and bandstand occupying center stage. The dining room's central grill is surrounded by a ring of patchwork-covered banquettes and wood tables. The colors and textures of fixtures and finishes are derived from tropical cocktails and handcrafted objects native to the South American country, from the collaged, cracked mirror wall to the tooled metallic leathers and hand-rubbed plaster walls. Faux fruit and vegetation, including coconuts, pineapples, bananas, and palm fronds, take many forms, from barstools to chandeliers." Part of Samba's experiential intention is to have all the senses immersed "in the Carnival-like festivities, a band plays tropical tunes, amplifying the Brazilian flavor of the interior environment."47

The Decade of 2000

In 2009, the Japanese-Brazilian fusion restaurant, Sushi Samba Strip and Sugarcane Lounge48 in Las Vegas, opened with an energizing display of décor and utilizing two interior archetypes, Billboard supergraphics of Japanese comics (Manga) and Dressed Ceiling.49 Once again designers turn to Saturate as the branding concept to submerge patrons in a tropical-Japanese environment. The color palette, borrowed from Brazilian culture, contributes to an upbeat and dynamic environment, while traditional Japanese motifs provide a Zen atmosphere. Furnishings embrace the theme with organic materials, such as wood for the chairs and tabletops, adding an extra layer of texture and interest. The Saturate condition at Sushi encompasses food and interior design. 


Saturate is the brand concept strategy that creates holistic fantastic and atmospheric theme dining experiences. Primary evidence in the form of published work and original photographs suggests that Saturate began at least by the decade of 1930. The public fascination with dining in an extraordinary space that takes them away from the real world has made Saturate widespread in the hospitality and restaurant industry. Although themes evolve and trends change, Saturate will continue to be the driving force behind the theme dining industry.50

end notes

  1. 1) Juliana Richer Daily, "Theory Studies: Archetypical Spatial Graphic Design Practices in Contemporary Interior Design," (M.A. Thesis, Cornell University, 2012), 99-102.
  2. 2) Beverly Gordon, The Saturated World: Aesthetic Meaning, Intimate Objects, Women's Lives, 1890-1940 (Knoxville, Tenn.: The University of Tennessee Press, 2006), 3.
  3. 3) Gordon, The Saturated World, 3-4.
  4. 4) Research for this case study about the Polynesian restaurant draws from Jeanne Alaine Mercer, "The Polynesian Theme in American Restaurants 1954-1970: A Case Study of Cultural & Design Appropriations." M.A., Cornell University, 1997 and Jan Jennings, Paper, "Kon-Tiki, Kahiki and Wan: Landscapes for Dining." Symposium, Landscapes: Sublime, Popular, Ruined, Surreal. Cornell University Department of Architecture, Ithaca NY, 2001. Mercer and Jennings used different sources to build their arguments, but both concluded that Polynesian restaurants shared some attributes with the 18th Century Picturesque, especially the aesthetic characterized as mixture.
  5. 5) The creation of the Polynesian restaurant was influenced by a larger geographical region than the defined region of Polynesia, including neighboring Melanesia and New Zealand. The islands most influential to the theme included the Hawaiian Islands, New Guinea and Easter Island. 
  6. 6) Alan Beardsworth and Alan Bryman, "Late Modernity and the Dynamics of Quasification: The Case of the Themed Restaurant", The Sociological Review 47, no. 2 (May 1999): 236.
  7. 7) "Aloha Luau-2000 Seat 'Restaurant'," Institutions 56 (Jan. 1965): 164; "Pub-Tiki," Volume Feeding Management 23 (Aug. 1964): 47-53; Postcard, Clifton's Pacific Seas Cafeteria (undated).
  8. 8) Postcard, Bamboo Room, Country Club Hotel [1960] 6930 South Shore Drive, Chicago. Chicago: Curt-Teich ODK-523.
  9. 9) "Aloha Luau-2,000 Seat 'Restaurant'," Institutions 56 (Jan. 1965): 166.
  10. 10) Joe Minster, "Islander," Pacific Coast Record 51 (Nov. 1960): 14-16.
  11. 11) Edward J. Mayland, "Dine in Tropical Splendor at the Traders," Cooking for Profit 26 (July 1957): 9-11, 18; Aloha Luau-2000 Seat 'Restaurant'," Institutions 56 (Jan. 1965): 166; "Exotic Foreign Atmosphere Made in the U.S.A.," American Restaurant Magazine (Oct. 1961): 54; "For an Evening in Another Land," Cooking for Profit 30 (Aug. 1961): 15; "Exotic Foreign Atmosphere Made in the U.S.A.," American Restaurant Magazine (Oct. 1961): 54; Edward J. Mayland, "Dine in Tropical Splendor at the Traders," Cooking for Profit 26 (July 1957): 9-11, 18.
  12. 12) Postcard of Hawaiian Cottage Restaurant, Route 38, Merchantville, New Jersey. Chicago: Curt-Teich OC-H 1353, 1950; Postcard of Honolulu Harry's Waikiki, 804 Wilson Avenue, Chicago. Chicago: Curt-Teich 2CH 1178, 1949. Postcard of Honolulu Harry's Waikiki, 804 Wilson Avenue, Chicago. Chicago: Curt-Teich 2CH 1178, 1952; "Meet Stephen Crane, Tropical Trend Maker," Food Service 27 (June 1965): 47-49, 52, 54.
  13. 13) Edward J. Mayland, "Dine in Tropical Splendor at the Traders," Cooking for Profit 26 (July 1957): 9-11, 18.
  14. 14) Harry Langerman, "A Look at The Luau," Hotel and Club News (May 1961): 4-5; Joe Minster, "Islander," Pacific Coast Record 51 (Nov. 1960): 14-16.
  15. 15) Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums, and Heritage (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 18, 128. Emphasis in original.
  16. 16) "Dining Polynesian Style," Interior Design 36 (Oct. 1965): 215.
  17. 17) "Meet Stephen Crane, Tropical Trend Maker," Food Service 27 (June 1965): 48; "The Glamour of the South Seas," Interior Design 41, no. 4 (Apr. 1970): 168-69. 
  18. 18) "Oriental Menu Magic Fascinates the Public," Cooking for Profit 29 (July 1960): 18-19; Postcard of Gene Kamp's Island Home, 7068 Belmont Avenue, Chicago. Chicago: Curt-Teich IDK-1929, 1961; "Custom Made Equipment for Cleveland Restaurant," Cooking for Profit (July 1961): 24-26; Postcard of The Luau, on the 79th Street Causeway between Miami and Miami Beach, Florida. Chicago: Curt-Teich 6C-K750, 1956; John English, "Tiki-Southern California Style," SCA Journal (Spring 1998): 10-13.
  19. 19) "Theme Come Through: New Concept of Polynesia," Institutions 52 (June 1963): 84-86.
  20. 20) "Theme Come Through," 84-86.
  21. 21) Sidney K. Robinson, Inquiry Into the Picturesque (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 93-95.
  22. 22) Robinson, Inquiry Into the Picturesque, 7-9, 97.
  23. 23) Mitchell J. Alster, 10-Point Check List for Good Restaurant Design," American Restaurant Magazine (February 1952): 52-53; Minor L. Bishop, "Atmosphere for Gourmets," Interiors 125 (Mar. 1966): 125-27.
  24. 24) "For an Evening in Another Land," Cooking for Profit 30 (Aug. 1961): 15; "Pub-Tiki," Volume Feeding Management 23 (Aug. 1964): 47-53.
  25. 25) Mai-Kai, (accessed Nov. 3, 2011).
  26. 26) Between 1911 and 1912 architect Heinrich Schwechten builds a multi-purpose installation of offices, cinema and restaurants at Postdam Plaza. The main attraction is the 2,500 seat Café Piccadilly, the largest in Europe. At the outbreak of World War I, Piccadilly is renamed Café Vaterland (Fatherland Café). In 1928, it is renamed Haus Vaterland.
  27. 27) Christoph Grafe, Franziska Bollerey, Charlotte van Wiji, Cafes and Bars: The Architecture of Public Display (New York City: Routledge, 2007), 67-68; Has Vaterland Berlin, (accessed Dec. 16, 2011); Wild West Bar and Turkishche Kaffee, (accessed Dec. 16, 2011).
  28. 28) Atlantis, Berlin, (accessed Dec. 16, 2011).
  29. 29) Postcards, Clifton's "Pacific Seas" [1947] Anonymous Designer; Los Angeles, California; Anonymous Postcard Manufacturer; PhotoCrd: Anonymous; Private Collection: Jan Jennings.
  30. 30) "Always Beckoning Customers . . . The ABC's of Good Design," American Restaurant Magazine (May 1957): 214; "A Restaurant with Built-In Sales Appeal," American Restaurant Magazine (May 1957): 216-18; Hazel F. Briggs, Cooking for Profit 25 (Oct. 1956): 11.Postcards, Clifton's "Pacific Seas" [1947] Anonymous Designer; Los Angeles, California; Anonymous Postcard Manufacturer; PhotoCrd: Anonymous; Private Collection: Jan Jennings.
  31. 31) Trader Vic's Menu, c1950, Randall H. Greenlee Menu Collection, Box 1, Kroch Library, Division of Rare & Manuscript Collections, Cornell University.  
  32. 32) Trader Vic's Postcard [c1950] Chicago, IL in (accessed Jul. 1, 2012); Trader Vic's Hotel Benson [c1950] Portland, OR in (accessed Jul. 1, 2012).
  33. 33) Minor L. Bishop, "Atmosphere for Gourmets," Interiors 125 (March 1966): 125-127; Marion Heuer, "Key a Restaurant to a Theme and Color Scheme," American Restaurant Magazine 41 (Feb. 1957): 100-102; "Aloha Luau-2000 Seat 'Restaurant'," Institutions 56 (Jan. 1965): 164.
  34. 34) The Beachcomber at the May Fair Hotel [c1960] London, England in (accessed Jul. 2, 2012); The Beachcomber at the May Fair Hotel  [c1960] London, England in (accessed Jul. 2, 2012).
  35. 35) Circus Circus [1969] Bert Franklin, design; Las Vegas, NV in Anonymous, "Circus Circus," Interior Design 40, no. 3 (Mar. 1969): 96-101; PhotoCrd: Anonymous.
  36. 36) The Intype Red Room is one of the oldest European archetypes, is a room in which all walls are rendered in a monochromatic red, a technique often used to create contrast and autonomy between one room and another. Jasmin Cho, " Theory Studies: Archetypical Practices of Contemporary Restaurant Design" (M.A. Thesis, Cornell University, 2009), 65-75; The Interior Archetypes Research and Teaching Project, Cornell University, (accessed Jun. 7, 2012).
  37. 37) Steak & Brew Restaurant [1970] John B. Maurer, design; Fort Lee, NJ, in Anonymous, "Talk About Talent: John B.Maurer," Interior Design 41, no. 5 (May 1970): 115-20; PhotoCrd: Paulus LeeserSteak & Brew Restaurant [1970] John B. Maurer, design; Fort Lee, NJ, in Anonymous, "Talk About Talent: John B.Maurer," Interior Design 41, no. 5 (May 1970): 115-20; PhotoCrd: Paulus Leeser..
  38. 38) South Pacific Ports Restaurant [1970] Fred Bush, design; New York City in Anonymous, "The Glamour of the South Seas," Interior Design 41, no.4 (Apr. 1970): 168-69; PhotoCrd: B & G International. 
  39. 39) Trattoria of Chef Boy-ar-dee [1971] John Maurer, design; New York City in Anonymous, "Chef Boy-ar-dee Trattoria," Interior Design 42, no.4 (Apr. 1971): 128; PhotoCrd: Anonymous.
  40. 40) T.G.I.Fridays Restaurant [1978] CBT and Melvin Fain, designer and consultant; Boston, MA, in Anonymous,  "Exeter Street Theater," Interior Design  49, no.13 (Dec. 1978): 150-152; PhotoCrd: Anonymous.
  41. 41) 86th Street [1986] M. Shelly Mirich, design; British Columbia, Canada in Eddie Lee Cohen, "86th Street," Interior Design  57, no.11 (Nov. 1986): 192-93; PhotoCrd: Roger Brooks.
  42. 42) The Intype Billboard describes a treatment for an entire planar surface as a blank canvas for art, text, graffiti or photography. In some cases Billboard encompasses more than one plane. Elizabeth O'Brien, "Material Archetypes: Contemporary Interior Design and Theory Study" (M.A. Thesis, Cornell University, 2006), 109; The Interior Archetypes Research and Teaching Project, Cornell University, (accessed Jul. 10, 2012).
  43. 43) Olimpo [1987] Pino Piantanida, design; Rome, Italy in Helen Barnes, "Olimpo," Interior Design 58, no. 6 (Apr. 1987): 264-67; PhotoCrd: Giovanna Piemonti.
  44. 44) Planet Hollywood [1995] David Rockwell, design; New York City in M. Lindsay Bierman, "David Rockwell," Interior Design 66, no. 15 (Dec. 1995): 98-102; PhotoCrd: Paul Warchol.
  45. 45) Bierman, "David Rockwell," 98-102.
  46. 46) Samba [1999] David Rockwell, design; Las Vegas, NV in Abby Bussel, "Flying Down to Rio," Interior Design 70, no. 14 (Nov. 1999): 182; PhotoCrd: Paul Warchol.
  47. 47) Bussel, "Flying Down to Rio," Interior Design  70, no. 14 (Nov. 1999): 182; PhotoCrd: Paul Warchol.
  48. 48) Sushi Samba Strip and Sugarcane Lounge [2009] ICrave Design; Las Vegas, NV in Anonymous, "ICrave Design," Interior Design 80, no.9  (Jul. 2009): 154; PhotoCrd: Francis George and Francis Baytan.
  49. 49) The Intype Dressed Ceiling describes the treatment of large sections of a ceiling plane that is dressed by three-dimensional materials or objects that enliven the plane in terms of decoration or ornamentation. Jimena Roses-Sierra, "Theory Studies: Archetypical Theme Dining Practices in Contemporary Interior Design" (M.A. Thesis, Cornell University, 2013), 96.
  50. 50) Evidence for the archetypical use and the chronological sequence of Saturate in theme restaurant design was developed from the following sources: 1930 Wild West Bar, Haus Vaterland [c1930] Berlin; Turkishche Kaffee, Haus Vaterland [c1930] Berlin; Turkishche Kaffee, Haus Vaterland [c1930] Berlin; Atlantis [c1930] Berlin / 1940 Postcard, Clifton's "Pacific Seas" [c1947] Anonymous Designer; Los Angeles, CA; Curteich-Chicago; PhotoCrd: Anonymous; Private Collection: Jan Jennings; Postcard, Clifton's "Pacific Seas" [1947] Anonymous Designer; Los Angeles, California; Anonymous Postcard Manufacturer; PhotoCrd: Anonymous; Private Collection: Jan Jennings / 1950 Trader Vic's Menu, c1950, Randall H. Greenlee Menu Collection, box 1, Kroch Library, Division of Rare & Manuscript Collections, Cornell University; Trader Vic's Postcard [c1950] Chicago, IL; Trader Vic's Hotel Benson [c1950] Portland, OR / 1960 The Beachcomber at the May Fair Hotel  [c1960] London, England; The Beachcomber at the May Fair Hotel  [c1960] London, England; Circus Circus [1969] Bert Franklin, design; Las Vegas, NV in Anonymous, "Circus Circus," Interior Design 40, no. 3 (Mar. 1969): 97; PhotoCrd: Anonymous / 1970 Steak & Brew Restaurant [1970] John B.Maurer, designer; Fort Lee, NJ, in Anonymous, "Talk About Talent: John B. Maurer," Interior Design 41, no. 5 (May 1970): 120; PhotoCrd: Paulus Leeser; South Pacific Ports Restaurant [1970] Fred Bush, design; New York City in Anonymous, "The Glamour of the South Seas," Interior Design 41, no.4 (Apr. 1970): 169; PhotoCrd: B & G International; Trattoria of Chef Boy-ar-dee [1971] John Maurer, design; New York City in Anonymous, "Chef Boy-ar-dee Trattoria," Interior Design 42, no.4 (Apr. 1971): 128; PhotoCrd: Anonymous; T.G.I.Fridays Restaurant [1978] CBT and Melvin Fain, designer and consultant; Boston, MA in Anonymous, "Exeter Street Theater," Interior Design 49, no.13 (Dec. 1978): 153; PhotoCrd: Anonymous; T.G.I.Fridays Restaurant [1978] CBT and Melvin Fain, designer and consultant; Boston, MA in Anonymous,"Exeter Street Theater," Interior Design 49, no.13 (Dec. 1978): 152; PhotoCrd: Anonymous / 1980 86th Street [1986] M. Shelly Mirich, design; British Columbia, Canada in Eddie Lee Cohen, "86th Street," Interior Design 57, no.11 (Nov. 1986): 193; PhotoCrd: Roger Brooks; 86th Street [1986] M. Shelly Mirich, design; British Columbia, Canada in Eddie Lee Cohen, "86th Street," Interior Design 57, no.11 (Nov. 1986): 192; PhotoCrd: Roger Brooks; Olimpo [1987] Pino Piantanida, design; Rome, Italy in Helen Barnes, "Olimpo," Interior Design 58, no. 6 (Apr. 1987): 264; PhotoCrd: Giovanna Piemonti; Olimpo [1987] Pino Piantanida, design; Rome, Italy in Helen Barnes, "Olimpo," Interior Design 58, no .6 (Apr. 1987): 266; PhotoCrd: Giovanna Piemonti / 1990 Planet Hollywood [1995] David Rockwell, design; New York City in M. Lindsay Bierman, "David Rockwell," Interior Design 66, no. 15 (Dec. 1995): 101; PhotoCrd: Paul Warchol; Planet Hollywood [1995] David Rockwell, designer; New York City in M. Lindsay Bierman, "David Rockwell," Interior Design 66,  no.15 (Dec. 1995): 102.

bibliographic citations

1) Roses-Sierra, Jimena. "Theory Studies:  Archetypical Theme Dining, Practices in Contemporary Interior Design." M.A. Thesis, Cornell University, 2012, 158-208.